3. - - .., ..

- -


蠠 ࠠ ꠠ 堠

젠 젠 ⠠ 堠

堠 堠 . 堠

, ⠠

蠠 .  , ⠠

, 젠 ࠠ ( ., 1998), 99 %

頠 

, 蠠 .

. 蠠 堠 ,

젠 堠 ࠠ 򠠠 ⠠

, ,  頠 蠠

, 堠 -

,

, .

,

젠 ,

젠  ,

, 

,

, -,

,

,

.

20- ..

.. (.

.., 1996),

, ⠠ 堠

,

頠 ꠠ

,

, 堠 蠠

, 堠 젠 "젠 ".

堠 堠 堠

頠 󠠠 ,

堠 ⠠  , 堠

頠 -,

堠 , ࠠ

젠 , ࠠ ࠠ

.

, 蠠 , 蠠

頠 頠 蠠 򠠠

堠 񠠠 蠠 蠠 蠠 ,

,  .. , (1992), ..

ࠠ 蠠 . (1992), ..  (1996)

蠠 ., 堠 堠 . 蠠

堠 ,  󠠠

򠠠 堠 , ,

頠 ꠠ 󠠠 󠠠 蠠 -

頠 蠠 ⠠ ,

堠 堠  젠

젠 ,  

젠 蠠 젠 . ,

, ⠠

 蠠 蠠 젠

 󠠠

. 򠠠 蠠 젠 ,

堠 蠠 ⠠ 堠 頠 񠠠

蠠 蠠 蠠 ࠠ

.

  頠 堠 堠 蠠

젠 ,

蠠 򠠠  ࠠ -

, 堠 

" ", 堠 ࠠ

, . 󠠠

, 󠠠 蠠 堠 :

, 堠 ,

, .

-頠 砠 ,

頠 蠠 򠠠

蠠 - 頠

񠠠 頠 頠 .

젠 ,  頠

蠠 頠 (-10), 򠠠 堠 ,

, , , 

蠠 T, 

!%#ab".,. -

48

頠 頠 򠠠 ,

젠 ,

򠠠 ⠠  堠 堠

, 堠 

, 堠 堠

頠 ࠠ 頠

.

堠 ⠠  

򠠠 ꠠ 堠 頠 ,

, , .

頠 򠠠

頠 , 󠠠 ⠠ 堠

󠠠 , 򠠠 ࠠ 蠠

 ࠠ 蠠 󠠠 ⠠

蠠 젠 蠠 .

堠 蠠 蠠 : ""

蠠 ""

 񠠠 蠠 , ,

蠠 蠠 , ⠠  ꠠ

.

堠 ,

󠠠 蠠 , .. , ..

, .. ⠠ (1995) 񠠠 젠

ࠠ 蠠

蠠 ꠠ "堠 ",

.. 頠 (1993)- ꠠ "-

", ࠠ 堠

堠 頠 頠 -

"頠 -", ""

堠 -堠 ",

"堠 ". 蠠 ( .., 1995)

-젠 蠠 ,

 󠠠 頠 򠠠 -

. 砠 "堠

" 򠠠 蠠 蠠

堠 堠 -

( .., 1992; .. ., 1992).

ࠠ 

蠠 蠠 蠠

, 蠠 蠠 .

堠 頠 ࠠ

, 砠

, 堠

a* 'k" nbao ࠠ 蠠

젠 (頠 .., 1993). ꠠ

, -

*-in?

젠 񠠠 蠠 蠠 젠 ⠠

頠 ,

(ࠠ .., .., ⠠ ., 1995;

.. ., 1996).

ꠠ 󠠠 󠠠 蠠 -

蠠 蠠 頠 頠 蠠

堠 堠 ,  ꠠ 젠 젠

( .., 1995). 젠  堠 頠 򠠠

- 堠 򠠠 -

, 堠 

蠠 蠠 ,

ꠠ 젠 젠

젠 젠 ( .. 蠠 ., 1994).

  ࠠ 젠 ࠠ

񠠠 : ࠠ ࠠ 堠

堠 , , ,

, 

, 堠 , 堠 -

堠 , 堠 ,

 蠠 . , 

蠠 ꠠ ࠠ

頠 頠 蠠 ⠠ 

. ,  蠠 蠠

⠠ 񠠠 頠 蠠

蠠 (ࠠ .., ..,

.., 1995). ࠠ 堠 堠 򠠠

堠 , ,

堠  ,   蠠

.

 ꠠ 젠 , 젠

󠠠 ⠠ ⠠ 頠 , :

- 堠 젠 蠠 ꠠ

;

- 堠

堠 蠠 ⠠ 堠 ;

- , ꠠ

蠠 ᠠ ,

頠 蠠 蠠  堠 蠠

 ; ࠠ - 堠 堠

󠠠 ⠠ ⠠ 蠠

頠 頠 . ࠠ

; 堠 ࠠ 頠 -

젠 蠠 ࠠ 堠 ;

蠠 - , ⠠ 堠

蠠  젠 젠 ࠠ ,

ࠠ  堠

$%ob%+l-.ab(.

ࠠ  ࠠ 蠠 ࠠ

堠 - 蠠

⠠ ⠠ 堠

蠠 頠 (

.., ." 1986; ࠠ .., 1989; Levi

L., 1972; Berry R. et at., 1988). ..

ࠠ (1992)

 ࠠ 򠠠 䠠  ,

 ⠠ 堠 ,

ꠠ 젠 ,

⠠ ⠠

.   , 堠 񠠠 젠

젠 ⠠ -

, , 蠠

򠠠 ꠠ

󠠠  񠠠 , 󠠠

⠠ ⠠ -

. .. ࠠ (1992) ,

--

- 𠠠 󠠠 

젠 .

蠠 ꠠ

. , 蠠 蠠

⠠ 젠 砠 頠

蠠 ࠠ ࠠ 堠

堠 - .

򠠠 ꠠ

.

^

  堠 ,  䠠

- 頠

ࠠ ⠠ 蠠 򠠠 

򠠠 蠠 堠 ⠠ ,

堠 蠠

젠 , 堠 ⠠

, ࠠ ⠠

- -;

-| 頠 (⠠ ..

., 1992; 頠 .., 1996;!

.. 蠠 ., 1996). 頠 -

" 

頠 頠 (

.., 1992).

頠 젠 -

, 蠠 젠

,

젠 蠠 젠 蠠 젠

. 堠 堠

򠠠 

堠 ࠠ 蠠

젠 頠

頠  ࠠ (

.., - .., 1986).   堠 ,

, ,

--

, 򠠠 堠 

頠 (,

, , ࠠ 蠠 . .),

蠠 ( ..

., 1990),  蠠 頠 , ,

, 堠 ⠠ 頠 ,

젠 ⠠ 蠠 ,

ࠠ 堠 - 젠 (

.., 1993; .., 1995).

 堠 堠 ,

堠 ⠠ 堠 蠠 堠 . ʠ

 ⠠ 頠 堠

젠 : , ,

堠 蠠 . L. Levi (1972), R. Berry et

al. (1988) ,  ⠠ 

堠 : 頠 (

, , , ),

(頠 ,

), 頠 (

蠠 堠 ) 蠠

( 蠠 蠠 蠠 蠠

-). 堠 ,

, ࠠ 堠

 堠 (Levi L., 1972).

堠 頠 蠠

:

(젠 ,

);

頠 (堠

򠠠 , 蠠 蠠 , 堠

, );

蠠 ( 堠

, , . .);

頠 (⠠

52

堠 ,

, ).

堠 ""  堠 堠 ,

, 堠 堠 (. .

1.2.),  堠

"", , 񠠠 頠 ,

򠠠 -, ࠠ 񠠠

- 蠠

. 蠠 젠 ,

ࠠ  ࠠ

젠 ⠠ 蠠

.

堠 堠 蠠 ⠠

,

⠠  堠 (Berry R.

et al., 1988). ࠠ 蠠 

 ꠠ 蠠 頠

蠠 蠠 堠 堠 ,

堠 蠠 ⠠ : 堠

 ⠠ ,

蠠 ; 堠 ࠠ

젠 堠 젠 蠠 蠠

蠠 ⠠ 蠠 ();

,  .

蠠 頠  ,

頠 ࠠ 񠠠 頠 ⠠

蠠 堠 ࠠ 񠠠 , 

- 堠 蠠

, .

젠 頠 堠

,  頠 頠 젠

堠 蠠 ࠠ

蠠 ⠠ 蠠

 , 

, 頠 񠠠 . 堠 񠠠 젠

頠 蠠 堠 蠠

.

堠 ⠠ ⠠ 堠 

 , ⠠ 蠠 -

 ࠠ ⠠ 頠 堠 ,

 ࠠ 堠 - 頠 蠠

⠠ 񠠠 젠 ⠠

.  ࠠ (堠 , 젠

40-80 % ) ⠠

堠 ࠠ 蠠 򠠠

$%aob(+%b(o, -

⠠ 堠 ,

堠 񠠠 頠 頠 頠 (

..,  .., 1994-頠 ..,

1996; Berry R. et al., 1988).

⠠ -

, 蠠 ꠠ

頠 蠠 蠠

(⠠ ..,  .., 1994; ⠠ ..

蠠 -, 1996).   蠠  򠠠

頠 頠 (頠 ..,

1993;  .. 蠠 ., 1994)

頠 (⠠ .., 1992)

.

, ࠠ

. 堠 砠 :

堠 󠠠 頠

蠠 蠠 ꠠ 頠 ;

󠠠 蠠 蠠 蠠 蠠

; ࠠ 󠠠 젠 蠠 젠 ,

蠠 蠠 蠠 񠠠

. 堠 堠 頠

ࠠ 󠠠  ,  堠

堠 ࠠ

蠠  頠 , 젠 䠠 砠

堠 堠 ⠠ 蠠 頠

 , 蠠 堠 -

蠠 (⠠ .., 1992).

젠 頠 ,

頠 蠠 堠 頠

( .., 1996).

堠 堠 򠠠 ࠠ

堠 , ࠠ 

ࠠ 򠠠 -

, 򠠠

. 頠 

頠 蠠

 蠠 ⠠

. 頠 - 

, 頠

蠠 ( ), ࠠ

. 頠 ꠠ - ,

堠 . 頠

 頠 頠

 ࠠ 蠠 젠 ;

./`%$%+o%b

54

) 蠠 頠

. ࠠ ࠠ

.

Ӡ 頠 ⠠ ⠠

頠 蠠   (⠠ ..,

.., .., 1990),  堠 -

蠠 򠠠 , 堠

: 堠 ⠠ 堠 蠠 ⠠

, 17-⠠ ⠠ ,

, , ,

堠 ࠠ ⠠ 堠 .

, ࠠ 堠

, 堠 -

⠠ 堠 () 蠠

() 頠 򠠠 蠠 (

.., 1993; -..,."1999).

堠 -頠

򠠠 -堠 .

  젠  񠠠 頠 .-

ࠠ (1993)  ,  젠 砠

蠠 ꠠ 젠 젠

,

-⠠ , ꠠ 堠

ࠠ 蠠 -. 堠

 ࠠ 򠠠 砠 蠠

: , , -,

, 蠠 .

򠠠 蠠 堠 -堠 .

 -堠 ,

, , -,

, 򠠠 堠 -

, ⠠ 蠠 젠

-堠 .  

 ꠠ 堠 蠠

ࠠ - 堠 堠 ,

堠 񠠠 ࠠ 堠  ࠠ

-頠 򠠠 ꠠ (ꠠ .,

.., 1999)..

񠠠 ꠠ 頠 䠠 

蠠 堠 ( .., 1993),

堠 򠠠 堠  , 

젠 ( .., 1992; 1995). ..

ࠠ (1992) ,  ⠠ 蠠 . ࠠ

⠠ 󠠠 . ࠠ ⠠ 䠠 񠠠 1980  |1983

ࠠ ࠠ ,  ꠠ -

, 頠 젠 񠠠

ࠠ  .

⠠ 򠠠

. 堠

⠠ 򠠠 ꠠ

⠠ ,

, ࠠ 堠 蠠

. 頠 䠠 砠  ࠠ

堠 , ⠠ 堠  ࠠ 򠠠 ⠠

ࠠ ࠠ 򠠠

. 頠 䠠 򠠠 砠 ࠠ

砠 蠠 ⠠ . 頠 ,

ꠠ 堠 ,

- . 頠 䠠

-頠 . 젠 ,

⠠ 頠 蠠 򠠠 堠

򠠠  , 頠 򠠠 堠

頠 -頠

.

ࠠ  ࠠ 蠠 ࠠ

堠 - 蠠

⠠ ⠠ 堠

蠠 .  

,  䠠 젠

- 頠 󠠠 ࠠ

⠠ 蠠 򠠠  ࠠ

򠠠 蠠 堠 ⠠

( .. 蠠 ., 1996), 蠠

蠠 젠

ࠠ ( .., 1994), 堠 ⠠

⠠ (

.., .., ࠠ .., 1994), ࠠ ⠠ -

( .. ., 1991).

堠  , 

堠 - ,

頠 蠠 頠

蠠 蠠 , 

 ⠠ 頠 ꠠ

頠 (ꠠ .., ⠠ ..,

1999;

.., .., 1986).

頠 蠠

頠 頠 ,

堠  蠠 頠

dd%*b (

蠠 蠠 ⠠ 򠠠 ࠠ 堠

). 頠 젠 -

頠 񠠠 ~ 򠠠

𠠠 蠠 젠  ,

젠 蠠 젠 蠠 젠

. 堠 堠

򠠠 

堠 ࠠ 蠠

젠 (蠠 堠 ) 젠

 .   堠 ,

, ,

-

, 򠠠 堠 

頠 (,

, , ࠠ 蠠 . .),

蠠 ( ..,

1990),  蠠 ࠠ

󠠠 , 頠 , ,

, 堠 ⠠ 頠 ,

젠 ⠠ 蠠 ,

ࠠ 堠 - 젠 (

.., 1993).

򠠠 , 堠 ,

堠 , , ,

, 堠 . 蠠

.

.  -  堠

.

. 堠 򠠠 ,

, .

.  ⠠ 頠

蠠 򠠠  ,  ;

, .

.

. 蠠 򠠠  蠠 蠠

 蠠 砠 蠠 , ,

.

. 堠  .

,  񠠠 蠠 򠠠 - . 

.

ࠠ . 蠠 堠

 ,  젠 蠠 

, ࠠ ࠠ  堠 򠠠 .

ࠠ 蠠 ࠠ 򠠠

.

堠 . 堠 , ࠠ

.

頠 砠 ꠠ

󠠠 젠 젠

- .

, 蠠 ࠠ

頠 (, , ,

 ࠠ 蠠 .) 򠠠 ࠠ 堠

堠 堠 , ࠠ 򠠠 

(-ꠠ .., 1995; ꠠ .., 頠 ..,

1992) 蠠 . ⠠ 堠 頠

, 頠 頠

򠠠 頠

( ). 蠠 젠 堠

蠠 ꠠ 򠠠

堠 ࠠ 堠 󠠠 , 

.  젠

蠠 蠠 蠠 蠠

蠠 , ࠠ 젠

蠠 񠠠 蠠 蠠

(⠠ .., 1997; ꠠ .., 1996) 蠠 .

젠 -

򠠠 ࠠ ,

ꠠ 蠠

蠠  , 蠠 堠

.

堠 򠠠

 . 󠠠 򠠠

 ⠠ ,  񠠠 򠠠

頠 頠 .

,  , 񠠠 頠 ,

 򠠠 ꠠ 젠 ,

, - ꠠ ࠠ . 󠠠

, ꠠ , 򠠠 蠠

- "" (堠 ., 1979),

򠠠 堠 , 堠

蠠 , 

,

  蠠 񠠠 젠 򠠠 , 젠 堠

,

蠠 頠 ? ࠠ 頠 񠠠

頠 , , ꠠ 堠 , ꠠ 蠠

.

堠 , 堠

 , 

蠠 蠠 (⠠ .. 蠠 .,

1994). Ӡ ⠠ 蠠

堠 蠠 򠠠 ꠠ

-, ,

, (MadeodA.D, 1991).

堠 򠠠

⠠ 堠 

⠠ 蠠 頠 蠠

⠠ (

.., .., 1986; .., 1995).

 蠠 

⠠ ⠠ 䠠 ꠠ (ꠠ ..

., 1991) 堠 頠 ⠠

⠠ 頠 , 堠

.

堠 堠 蠠 -

⠠ 򠠠 ⠠

ࠠ 󠠠 ࠠ .

򠠠 堠 蠠 頠

蠠  , , -

, 頠 蠠

. 堠  ࠠ ⠠

蠠 

頠  ⠠ 蠠

젠 頠 ⠠ ⠠

(頠 .., 1993). , ⠠ ,

頠 

,  堠 

ꠠ 頠 , 頠

. 򠠠

蠠 ⠠

(, ^-ࠠ , ,

젠 -) 蠠 堠

 . 렠

⠠ ( , -,

頠 ).

 ࠠ 頠 .  

젠 堠 -堠 堠

-

頠 蠠 蠠

.

ࠠ ⠠ 蠠 ꠠ , ꠠ

, .. 頠 (1993)

렠 "젠  -

- ".

-蠠 蠠

蠠 ࠠ  --

'.

堠 蠠 堠 蠠

;

堠  ࠠ 

;

;

堠 蠠

;

堠 頠 蠠

;

堠 蠠 - ࠠ

;

堠 頠 蠠

頠 ࠠ 񠠠

⠠ 頠

.

  ⠠

, 

頠 蠠 젠 젠

頠 񠠠 젠 蠠

젠 젠 ( ..

蠠 ., 1990; 頠 .., 1993).  ,

 堠 , 젠 񠠠

, 򠠠 頠 頠

-

(⠠ B.C. 蠠 ., 1994), ࠠ 砠

頠 蠠 -󠠠

頠 (⠠ .., B.C., 1997),

 頠 񠠠 蠠

頠 - ⠠ 젠 /

( .., 1993).

堠 堠

򠠠 堠 堠 堠 ⠠

頠 (頠 .., 1993)

蠠 ࠠ (⠠ .., 1989),

蠠 蠠

頠 蠠 젠 蠠 ,

 ꠠ

/a(e.a., b(g%ac*(e 頠 (-頠 ..,

.., 1986).

堠 -, ꠠ 젠

蠠 頠 , 򠠠 堠 蠠

, 堠 󠠠 󠠠 (

.., 1997; Levi G., 1972), 蠠 򠠠

蠠 ()

頠 󠠠 ࠠ ( .., 1995), 

젠  ࠠ 頠

頠 蠠 젠

( .., 1989).

, 򠠠 , 

堠  ࠠ 蠠

頠 蠠

⠠ 򠠠 堠

, 蠠 ,

젠 ⠠ 젠 젠 堠 堠

򠠠 砠 ⠠ 蠠

젠 蠠 . 堠

,

⠠ ࠠ 蠠 蠠

蠠 堠 ⠠ 蠠 

򠠠 ࠠ ⠠ 堠 

⠠ ࠠ ࠠ

젠 蠠 젠 . 堠 頠 '

򠠠 䠠 ⠠ 󠠠 蠠 堠

.

: 1488
: »


:

  • 2.1. " " - - .., ..
  • 2. - - - .., ..
  • "", N46 1992, .12. " " - .
  • 1.4. - - .., ..
  • 1. , - - .., ..
  • 4. , - - .., ..
  • 1.1. - - .., ..
  • 2. . , . . - - ..
  • 4. - - . .
  • 1.3. , - - .., ..
  • 1.2. - - .., ..
  • . - - .. , .. -
  • 2. "", " !" "" - - ,
  • 2. "" - - . -
  • 2.2. - - .., ..
  • 2. "" - - . -
  • I. "", - - . -
  • 2. " ?" - , - . . 1992.
  • III. "" - - . -
  • 2.3. - - .., ..
  • 27. "" , "" ""? - . -
  • 3. "" - - . -
  • "", "" "" - , , ( ) - .
  • 2.4. - - .., ..
  • 3. "" - - . -
  • 2.11.2. "-" - - .. -
  • III. " " - - ..
  • 1. "" - - . -
  • 13. "" "" - - ., . .
  • " "". - , . () - ..



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    .
    - .
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